Defining a Bruise
A bruise is an area of skin discoloration. A bruise occurs when small blood vessels break and leak their contents into the soft tissue beneath the skin.
There are three types of bruises:
- Subcutaneous: beneath the skin
- Intramuscular: within the belly of the underlying muscle
- Periosteal: bone bruise
Causes of Bruising
Bruises are often caused by falls, sports injuries, car accidents, or blows received by other people or objects.
If you take a blood thinner, like aspirin or warfarin (Coumadin), you are likely to bruise more easily.
Symptoms of Bruising
The main symptoms are pain, swelling, and skin discoloration. The bruise begins as a pinkish red color that can be very tender to touch. It is often difficult to use the muscle that has been bruised. For example, a deep thigh bruise is painful when you walk or run.
Eventually, the bruise changes to a bluish color, then greenish-yellow, and finally returns to the normal skin color as it heals.
- Do not attempt to drain the bruise with a needle.
- Do not continue running, playing, or otherwise using the painful, bruised part of your body.
- Do not ignore the pain or swelling.
What You Can Try
A product such as Miracle Plus Arnica Bruise Cream can help. It can speeds away the ugly appearance of bruises while restoring damaged skin.
When to Seek Help
Call your doctor immediately if you feel extreme pressure in a bruised part or your body, especially if the area is large or very painful. This may be due to a condition known as "compartment syndrome." Increased pressure on the soft tissues and structures beneath the skin can decrease the supply of vital blood and oxygen to the tissues. This is potentially life-threatening and you should receive emergency care promptly.
Also call your doctor if:
- You are bruising spontaneously without any injury, fall, or other reason.
- There are signs of infection around the bruised area including streaks of redness, pus or other drainage, or fever.
First Aid for Bruises
- Place ice on the bruise to help it heal faster and to reduce swelling. Place the ice in a cloth -- DO NOT place ice directly on the skin. Apply the ice for up to 15 minutes per hour.
- Keep the bruised area raised above the heart, if practical. This helps keep blood from pooling in the bruised tissue.
- Try to rest the bruised body part by not overworking your muscles in that area.
- If needed, take acetaminophen (Tylenol) to help reduce pain.
- Rub virgin coconut oil into bruised skin to speed healing and watch the bruises fade fast.
In the rare instance of "compartment syndrome," surgery frequently needs to be performed to relieve the extreme buildup of pressure.
Because bruises are usually the direct result of an injury, the following are important safety recommendations:
- Teach children how to be safe.
- Be mindful to avoid falls around the house. For example, be careful when climbing on ladders or other objects. Avoid standing or kneeling on counter tops.
- Wear seat belts in motor vehicles.
- Wear proper sports equipment to pad those areas most frequently bruised (thigh pads, hip guards, and elbow pads in football and hockey; shin guards and knee pads in soccer and basketball).
Sources: United States National Library of Medicine; National Institutes of Health
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